A Comparative Analysis of Vitamin D3 and Biofield Energy Treated Vitamin D3 in Bone Health Using MG-63 Cell Line

Journal: Orthoplastic Surgery & Orthopedic Care International Journal

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Abstract

Poor bone health is related with various bone disease that predisposes to fractures, while sufficient supplementation with calcium and vitamin D suggested prevention of bone diseases. The present study aimed to find the effect of Consciousness Energy Healing based vitamin D3 and DMEM medium on in vitro bone health parameters using MG-63 cells such as alkaline phosphates enzyme (ALP) activity, collagen levels, and bone mineralization. The test items (TI) i.e. vitamin D3 and DMEM medium were divided into two parts. The test samples received Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by Lauree Ann Duprey-Reed and samples were defined as the Biofield Energy Treated (BT) samples, while the other parts of each sample were denoted as the untreated test items (UT). Cell viability using MTT assay showed that cell viability range 76% to 139% with safe and nontoxic profile of test samples on MG-63 cell line. ALP was significantly increased by 171.8% and 189.7% at 10µg/mL in the UT-DMEM+BT-TI and BT-DMEM+BT-TI groups, respectively as compared with the untreated group.

In addition, 100% and 33.3% increased ALP at 0.1 and 10µg/mL, respectively in BT-DMEM+UT-TI group as compared with the untreated group. The level of collagen was significantly increased at 10µg/mL by 145.8% in the UT-DMEM+BT-TI group, while 65.8% and 145.8% at 1 and 10µg/mL, respectively in BT-DMEM+UT-TI group as compared with the untreated group. In addition, BT-DMEM+BT-TI group showed a significant increased collagen level by 86.3% and 136.1% at 1 and 10µg/mL, respectively as compared with the untreated test item and DMEM group.

The percent of bone mineralization was significantly increased by 150%, 21%, and 73.2% at 0.1, 10, and 100µg/mL, respectively in the UT-DMEM+BT-TI group, while 258.3% and 126.8% at 0.1 and 100µg/mL, respectively in the BT-DMEM+UT-TI group as compared with the untreated group. In addition, BT-DMEM+BT-TI group showed a significant increased bone mineralization by 33.3%, 32.7%, and 187.4% at 0.1, 10, and 100µg/mL, respectively as compared with the untreated group. Biofield Energy Treatment might be vital in promotion and maintenance of strong and healthy bones and quality of life by assisting them in maintaining optimal vitamin D levels. It regulates the osteoblast function, improves bone mineralization, and calcium absorption in wide range of bone disorders along with wide range of adverse health conditions, comprising cancer, and many autoimmune disorders.

Keywords:

Biofield energy; Bone strength; Osteosarcoma cells; Vitamin D; Bone mineralization

Abbreviations:

CAM: Complementary and Alternative Medicine; NCCAM: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; MG-63: Human Bone Osteosarcoma Cells; ALP: Alkaline Phosphatase; DMEM: Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium; FBS: Fetal Bovine Serum; FBS: Fetal Bovine Serum; EDTA: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid; UT: Untreated, BT: Biofield Energy Treated, TI: Test Item

Introduction

Our good health depends on various factors such as adequate input of essential vitamins and minerals. One of the extreme import-ant vitamin, is vitamin D not only to strengthen bone and teeth and bones, but also provide protection against serious diseases. Some primarily function of vitamin D included the calcium absorption, which helps to build bones strong and healthy [1]. Besides, it also blocks parathyroid hormone release in the body, which protects the body from reabsorbing the bone tissue and lead to bones thin and brittle. Vitamin D receptors (VDRs) are present in everybody or gans and significantly regulate the cell-to-cell communication, cell differentiation, hormonal balance, cell cycling and proliferation [2].

The synthesis of vitamin D is complex process and the energy of ultraviolet B rays in sunlight would convert the cholesterol pres-ent in skin into vitamin D3 (inactive form), which travels through blood to liver to form 25-hydroxy-vitamin D. Further, in kidney it produces 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D, also known as calcitriol (bio-logical active form) [2]. Calcitriol maintains the normal level of cal-cium and phosphorus, promote the bone mineralization, induce or repress the genes responsible for conserving the mineral homeo-stasis and skeletal integrity, and inhibit the health issues such as hy-pertension, kidney damage, cardiovascular and immune disorders [3] in the young and elderly populations [4]. Vitamin D supplement (approx. 400IU/day) along with the calcium 1000-1500mg/day is very essential for maintaining the excellent bone health [5]. In vitro cell studies of bone health using key some vital biomarkers, such as alkaline phosphates (ALP), collagen and calcium found to be sig-nificantly reported using MG-63 cell line. MG-63 cells and the effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) has been studied and reported [6]. Thus, MG-63 cell line is widely used to test any for-mulation or sample for bone health [7]. ALP is a phenotypic marker and it improves the concentration of inorganic phosphate for bone mineralization [8], while collagen fibrils formed arrays of an organ-ic matrix known as Osteoid [9]. Similarly, collagen and calcium are important biomarkers along with ALP that provides rigidity to the bone [10].

Putative Energy Fields (also known as Biofield) have been re-ported to date significant treatment reproducible methods in many fields. Biofield Energy Healing Therapies are based on the concept that human has the capacity to harness a subtle form of energy and transmit it into living and non-living objects [11]. This Conscious-ness Energy Healing Treatment included a life force, which has been known under different names. However, some vital energy thera-pies or Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) therapies are commonly known as Qi Gong, polarity therapy, Tai Chi, pranic healing, deep breathing, relaxation techniques, Rolfing structural integration, healing touch, movement therapy, pilates, mindfulness, and traditional Chinese herbs treatment. Biofield Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®), one of the best Biofield Energy Healing Treatment worldwide has been proofed with significant scientific results [12]. National Center for Complementary and Al-ternative Medicine (NCCAM) also mentioned and included the Biof-ield therapies in the subcategory of the Energy Therapies [13]. The Trivedi Effect® has been reported with significant revolution in the physicochemical properties of metals [14-16], agricultural crops [17,18], antimicrobial action [19,20], improved bone health [21,22], advanced biotechnology [23], increased bioavailability [24-26], en-hanced skin health [27,28], used as a nutraceutical [29,30], cancer science [31,32], and human health and wellness. Thus, authors in this study evaluated the impact of the Biofield Energy Treatment on vitamin D3 (test sample) for bone health activity using biomarkers such as ALP, collagen content, and bone mineralization in the MG-63 cells.

Material and Methods

Chemicals and reagents

Fetal bovine serum (FBS) and Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Me-dium (DMEM) were procured from Life Technology, USA. Similarly, the rutin hydrate was purchased from TCI, Japan. Vitamin D3 and L-ascorbic acid were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich, USA. Antibiot-ics solution (penicillin-streptomycin) was procured from HiMedia, India. 3-(4, 5-dimethyl -2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium) (MTT), Direct Red 80, and Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid (EDTA) were obtained from Sigma, USA.

Cell culture

Human bone osteosarcoma (MG-63) cell line was used and maintained with DMEM growth medium for routine culture, which was supplemented with 10% FBS. Growth conditions were main-tained at 37 °C, 5% CO2 and 95% humidity and sub-cultured by trypsinisation followed by splitting of the cell suspension into fresh flasks and further supplementing with fresh cell growth medium. Before experiment, the growth medium of near-confluent cells was replaced with fresh phenol-free DMEM, supplemented with 10% charcoal-dextran stripped FBS (CD-FBS) and 1% penicillin-strep-tomycin [33].

Experimental design

The following groups were defined in the study, such as baseline control, vehicle control groups (0.05% DMSO with Biofield Energy Treated and untreated DMEM media), positive control group in-cluded rutin hydrate, and the experimental test groups. The experi-mental test sample groups have combination of the Biofield Energy Treated and untreated vitamin D3/DMEM. Four major treatment groups on specified cells were selected with Untreated-DMEM + Untreated-Test item (UT-TI), UT-DMEM+Biofield Energy Treated test item (BT-TI), BT-DMEM+UT-TI, and BT-DMEM+BT-TI.

Consciousness energy healing treatment strategies

The test sample and the DMEM were treated with the Biofield Energy (also known as The Trivedi Effect®) by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Lauree Ann Duprey-Reed remotely for ~5 minutes. These test groups were divided as treated and untreated test sam-ples. The renowned Biofield Energy Healer was remotely located in the Canada and on the other side the test samples were in the Dabur Research Foundation, New Delhi, India, which were treated through the Healer’s unique Energy Transmission process remote-ly. Lauree Ann Duprey-Reed in this study never visited the laborato-ry in person, nor had any contact with the test item and medium. In addition, the experimental control group was treated with a sham healer, and sham healer did not have any knowledge about the Bio-field Energy Treatment. The samples were stored under laboratory condition for experimental test setup.

Determination of non-cytotoxic concentration

MTT assay was used to test the cell viability in MG-63 cells for treated and untreated test samples. The details procedure of cell viability assay was followed by Ansari et al. (2018) with slight mod-ification [21]. The cytotoxicity of each tested concentration of the test items was calculated with the help of Equation (1):

Where, X =Absorbance of treated cells; R =Absorbance of un-treated cells

The percentage of cell viability corresponding to each treat-ment group was calculated by Equation (2):

The concentration exhibiting ≥70% cell viability was defined as non-cytotoxic [34].

Assessment of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity

For the estimation of ALP activity of the Biofield Energy Treat-ment on the test items in MG-63 cells. The procedure of cell count-ing, plating, and treatment was followed as per Koster et al. [22,33]. The percent increase in ALP activity with respect to the untreated cells was calculated using Equation (3):

Where, X =Absorbance of cells corresponding to positive con-trol and test groups

R =Absorbance of cells corresponding to untreated cells

Assessment of collagen synthesis

For the estimation of collagen level in MG-63 cells, standard methods were used for the evaluation of the potential of Biofield Treated test items and the procedure in details was as per Koster et al. with few modifications [22,33]. The increase collagen level with respect to the untreated cells was calculated using Equation (4):

Where, X =Collagen levels in cells corresponding to positive control and test groups

R =Collagen levels in cells corresponding to untreated cells

Assessment of bone mineralization by alizarin red s staining

For the evaluation of the percent alteration in bone mineraliza-tion after treatment with the Biofield Energy Treated test items in MG-63 cells, and the details steps were followed according to An-sari et al. [21,33]. The percentage increase in bone mineralization compared to the untreated cells was calculated using Equation (5):

Where,         X =Absorbance in cells corresponding to posi-tive control or test groups; R =Absorbance in cells corresponding to untreated group.

Statistical Analysis

All the values were represented as percentage of respective pa-rameters. For multiple group comparison, one-way analysis of vari-ance (ANOVA) was used followed by post-hoc analysis by Dunnett’s test.

Results and Discussion

Cell viability study using MTT

MTT assay for cell viability against all the test samples were studied in MG-63 cells. All the viability results were compared with respect to rutin at various concentrations for the estimation of percentage cell viability. The cell viability among different groups results are graphically presented in Figure 1. The results of percent-age cell viability in all the tested cell lines showed the cell viability range from 76% to 139% in different test item groups with DMEM, while for rutin group showed more than 86.6% cell viability (Fig-ure 1). MTT data suggested that the test items along with DMEM groups were found safe at all the tested concentrations range up to maximum of 100µg/mL against the tested MG-63 cells, which were used for the estimation of other bone health parameters such as ALP, collagen and bone mineralization.

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzyme activity

The results of ALP level in MG-63 cellsin Biofield Energy Healing Treated vitamin D3 and DMEM at various concentrations is shown in the Figure 2. The vehicle control group showed 1.2% increased level of ALP as compared with the untreated cells group. The posi-tive control, rutin showed a significant increased value by 30.02%, 34.31%, and 51.47% at 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1µg/mL concentrations, respectively with respect to the untreated cells. The experimental test group’s viz. untreated medium and Biofield Energy Treated Test item (UT-DMEM+BT-TI) showed a significant increased level of ALP by 171.8% at 10µg/mL, while Biofield Energy Treated medium and untreated Test item (BT-DMEM+UT-TI) showed a significant in-creased ALP level by 100% and 33.3% at 0.1 and 10µg/mL, respec-tively as compared with the untreated test item and DMEM group. However, the Biofield Energy Treated medium and Biofield Energy Treated Test item (BT-DMEM+BT-TI) showed a significant increased ALP level by 50% and 189.7% at 0.1 and 10µg/mL, respectively as compared with the untreated test item and DMEM group.

Skeletal or bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) is a gly-coprotein found on osteoblasts cell surfaces. However, bone is con-stantly undergoing a metabolic process called remodeling, which mainly includes a degradation process, bone resorption, facilitated by osteoclasts action and a building process, bone formation and that is controlled by the osteoblasts. ALP, vitamin D, calcium, etc. are required for bone remodeling in order for maintenance and overall bone health [35-37]. It was reported by many reports that decreased level of ALP due to age factor or other reasons might lead to bone health diseases such as post-menopausal women, os-teoporosis, bone cancers, Paget’s disease of bone, healing fracture, bone growth, acromegaly, myelofibrosis, osteogenic sarcoma, or bone metastases, leukemia, and rarely myeloma [36]. With respect to ALP level, experimental data concluded that the Biofield Ener-gy Healing Treatment in the test samples showed a significant im-proved level of the ALP, which could be the best supplementation to treat various bone and age-related diseases. The experimental data well described that The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing based vit D3 and DMEM could be used to improve the ALP concentration in many bone disorders.

Assessment of collagen synthesis

The collagen level among the tested samples i.e. Biofield Energy Treated vit D3 and DMEM was estimated at various safe concentra-tions and the data suggested significant increased collagen level. All the collagen results are presented as % values and were compared with the untreated cells in Figure 3. The rutin hydrate showed a sig-nificant increased value of collagen by 39.60%, 42.81%, and 90.13% at 0.01, 0.1, and 1µg/mL, respectively. Besides, the experimental test groups such as UT-DMEM+BT-TI showed a significant increased collagen level by 35.6% and 145.8% at 1 and 10µg/mL, respectively while BT-DMEM+UT-TI group showed a significant increased colla-gen level by 65.8% and 145.8% at 1 and 10µg/mL, respectively as compared with the untreated test item and DMEM group. However, BT-DMEM+BT-TI group showed a significant increased collagen lev-el by 86.3%, 136.1%, and 15.1% at 1, 10, and 50µg/mL, respectively as compared with the untreated test item and DMEM group. Colla-gen is one of the major insoluble fibrous proteins in the extra cel-lular matrix and in the connective tissue. Bone and joints strength largely depends upon the percentage of collagen and its other nu-tritional factors such as vitamin D and calcium. Various factors such as age, pathological condition, genetic makeup, etc. would affect the collagen synthesis that would weaken the joints, tendons, and lig-aments. Bone mineralization has significant role of collagen type I, which is the most abundant matrix protein [38]. In addition, experi-mental results showed that collagen synthesis was significantly im-proved after Biofield Energy Treatment. This might be a significant approach to combat the reduced collagen synthesis, which could lead to serious bone diseases such as the type of bone loss experi-enced in osteoporosis [39]. The Biofield Energy Treated vitamin D3 and DMEM groups showed a significant improved level of collagen compared with the untreated group. Biofield Energy Treated vita-min D3 (The Trivedi Effect®) showed improved collagen level, which can be used to decrease aging process and bone inflammation.

Bone mineralization

The experimental analysis of bone mineralization on MG-63 cell line data suggested that the Biofield Energy Treated vitamin D3 and DMEM groups showed a significant improved bone mineralization. All the results are presented in term of percentage change of bone mineralization among different experimental groups in Figure 4. The positive control, rutin group showed a significant increased value of bone mineralization by 61.72%, 82.15%, and 141.72% at 5, 10, and 25µg/mL, respectively. The experimental data among test group’s viz. UT-DMEM+BT-TI showed a significant increased bone mineralization by 150%, 21%, and 73.2% at 0.1, 10, and 100µg/mL, respectively while BT-DMEM+UT-TI group showed a signifi-cantly increased bone mineralization by 258.3% and 126.8% at 0.1 and 100µg/mL, respectively as compared with the untreated test item and DMEM group. However, BT-DMEM+BT-TI group showed a significant increased bone mineralization by 33.3%, 32.7%, and 187.4% at 0.1, 10, and 100µg/mL, respectively as compared with the untreated test item and DMEM group. The present study was conducted to check the alteration in percentage of bone mineral-ization in the Biofield Energy Treated test samples with respect to the untreated test samples. Bone mineralization process includes the precipitation of the inorganic substance in an organic matrix. This process starts during normal biological process with respect to the bone formation, teeth, and other body exoskeletons. This process controls various bone disorders such as osteoporosis or other bone diseases. Bone mass and bone mineral density (BMD) depends upon the process of mineralization and various structural abnormalities [40,41]. The results after Biofield Energy Treatment suggested significant improved bone mineralization, which would improve the bone mass and resolve many bone related disorders.

Conclusion

Biofield Energy Treated vitamin D3 demonstrated significant improved bone health parameters in MG-63 cells. MTT assay data showed that a significant improved cell viability with more than76% among various test groups. Bone health parameters such as the level of ALP were increased by 171.8% at 10µg/mL in the UT-DMEM+BT-TI, while 100% and 33.3% at 0.1 and 10µg/mL, re-spectively in the BT-DMEM+UT-TI group as compared with the un-treated test item and DMEM group. In addition, BT-DMEM+BT-TI group showed an increased ALP level by 50% and 189.7% at 0.1 and 10µg/mL, respectively. The level of collagen was significantly increased by 35.6% and 145.8% at 1 and 10µg/mL, respectively in the UT-DMEM+BT-TI, while 65.8% and 145.8% at 1 and 10µg/mL, respectively in the BT-DMEM+UT-TI group. The level of collagen was increased by 86.3%, 136.1%, and 15.1% at 1, 10, and 50µg/mL, respectively in BT-DMEM+BT-TI group as compared with the untreated test item and DMEM group. Similarly, the bone miner-alization percent was significantly increased by150%, 21%, and 73.2% at 0.1, 10, and 100µg/mL, respectively in the UT-DMEM+BT-TI group, while 258.3% and 126.8% at 0.1 and 100µg/mL, respec-tively in the BT-DMEM+UT-TI group as compared with the untreat-ed group. In addition, BT-DMEM+BT-TI group showed a significant increased bone mineralization by 33.3%, 32.7%, and 187.4% at 0.1, 10, and 100µg/mL, respectively as compared with the untreated group. Thus, experimental results demonstrated that The Trivedi Effect® treated test samples can be utilized in managing various bone health parameters viz. collagen, bone mineralization, and ALP to combat the bone disorders. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® based vita-min D3 showed a significant improved bone health, which supports its use as the best nutritional supplement to treat bone related dis-orders such as rickets, deformed bones, osteomalacia, osteoma, os-teoporosis, Paget’s disease, aging, bone and/or joint pain, increased tendency of fractures, hormonal imbalance, stress, and other asso-ciated many more bone diseases.

Acknowledgement

Authors are grateful to Dabur Research Foundation, Trivedi Global, Inc, Trivedi Science, Trivedi Testimonials, and Trivedi Master Wellness for their support throughout the work.

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