Impact of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Chromium Trioxide (CrO3)

Journal: Pharmaceutical Sciences & Analytical Research Journal PDF  

Published: March 28, 2019 Volume: 2 Issue: 1

Authors: Dahryn Trivedi, Mahendra KT, Alice Branton, Gopal Nayak and Snehasis Jana

Citation: Dahryn Trivedi, et al. Impact of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Chromium Trioxide (CrO3). Pharma Sci Analytical Res J 2019, 2(1): 180016.

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Abstract

Chromium trioxide (CrO3) is a very hygroscopic, toxic and powerful oxidizing material. It has many industrial applications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (the Trivedi Effect®) on the physicochemical properties of CrO3 using PSA, PXRD, and DSC analytical techniques. The CrO3 test sample was divided into two parts. One part of CrO3 was considered as a control sample (no Biofield Energy Treatment was provided), while other parts of CrO3 received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by a distinguished Biofield Energy Healer, Dahryn Trivedi and termed as a treated sample. The particle size values of the treated CrO3 were increased by 71.13% (d10), 2.09% (d50), and 0.03% {D (4, 3)}, but decreased by 10.86% at d90 compared to the control sample. The specific surface area of the treated CrO3 was significantly decreased by 63.76% compared with the control sample. The powder XRD peak intensities and crystallite sizes of the treated CrO3 were significantly altered ranging from -27.64% to 30.72% and -46.14% to 136.44%, respectively; however, the average crystallite size was significantly increased by 17.65% compared with the control sample. The latent heat of fusion the treated CrO3 powder was significantly increased by 16.02% compared with the control sample. The experimental results indicated that the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment might have included a new polymorphic form of CrO3 which may show better powder flowability and lower solubility. Thus, it may lower the absorption and toxicity of CrO3 on inhalation, ingestion, contact to skin and eye, chronic exposure, and aggravation of pre-existing conditions. As well the Dahryn’s Consciousness Energy Healing Treated CrO3 would be very useful for the industry manufacturing the synthetic rubies, aerospace parts, stripping agent of anodic coatings, etc.

Keywords:

Chromium trioxide; The Trivedi Effect®; Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment; Particle size; Surface area; PXRD; DSC

Abbreviations:

NIH: National Institutes of Health; NCCAM: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; PSA: Particle Size Analysis; PXRD: Powder X-Ray Diffraction; DSC: Differential Scanning Calorimetry; SSA: Specific Surface Area; FWHM: Full-Width At Half Maximum.

Introduction

Chromium trioxide {chromium (VI) oxide or CrO3} is chemically an acidic anhydride of chromic acid. The CrO3 is highly hygroscopic, toxic, and a powerful oxidizer. It will ignite the organic materials on contact. It is typically employed for the chrome plating and it generates passivating chromate films by reacting with zinc, cadmium, and other metals to resist the process of corrosion [1-3]. It is also used for the manufacture of synthetic rubies, aerospace parts, and stripping agent of anodic coatings [2,4]. The CrO3 is highly corrosive, toxic, and carcinogenic. It causes potential health effects on inhalation, ingestion, contact with the skin and eye, chronic exposure, and aggravation of pre-existing conditions [5].

Physicochemical properties of any substance are very important for the application purpose. The Trivedi Effect®-Biofield Energy Healing Treatment scientifically proved that it has a huge impact to alter the intrinsic physicochemical properties of various living and non-living objects [6-9]. The Trivedi Effect® is a natural and only scientifically proven phenomenon in which a person can harness this inherently intelligent energy from the Universe and transmit it anywhere on the planet. It was believed that the Trivedi Effect® act through the possible mediation of neutrinos oscillation [10]. Every living organism possesses a unique para-dimensional electromagnetic field around the body which originates from the continuous movements of the charged particles, ions, cells, blood/lymph flow, brain functions, and heart function in the body known as “Biofield Energy”. Biofield based Energy Healing Therapies (energy medicine) have been reported with significant outcomes against various disease conditions [11]. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) and National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) recommend and included the Energy therapy under Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) category along with Tai Chi, Qi Gong, Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese medicines, homeopathy, chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation, Reiki, healing touch, yoga, meditation, special diets, massage, guided imagery, acupuncture, acupressure, hypnotherapy, Rolfing structural integration, mindfulness, cranial sacral therapy, and applied prayer. The CAM therapy has been accepted by the most of the U.S. people [12,13]. With this respects, the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment also been comprehensively reported with amazing results in the field of material science [14,15], organic chemistry [16,17], nutraceutical/pharmaceutical sciences [6-8,18,19], agriculture [9,20], biotechnology [21,22], microbiology [23,24], and medical science [25]. Considering the outstanding results, the current study has been designed to evaluate the impact of the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on CrO3 using particle size analysis (PSA), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analytical techniques.

Materials and Methods

Chemicals and reagents

The test sample CrO3 powder was obtained from Sigma Aldrich, India and all other chemicals used during the experiments were of the analytical grade also procured in India.

Consciousness energy healing treatment strategies

The CrO3 powder considered for the experiment was divided into two parts. The Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment was received by one part of the test sample remotely under standard laboratory conditions for 3 minutes by the renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Dahryn Trivedi, USA, and known as the treated sample. However, another part of the test item was treated with a “sham” healer and considered as a control (untreated) sample. The “sham” healer is totally ignorant about the Biofield Energy Treatment. After the treatment, the treated and untreated samples were kept in sealed conditions and characterized using PSA, PXRD, and DSC analytical techniques.

Characterization

Particle size analysis (PSA): The particle size analysis of CrO3 powder was performed on Malvern Mastersizer 2000, from the UK [26, 27]. The % change in particle size (d) for CrO3 powder was calculated using the following equation 1:

Where dControl and dTreated are the particle size (μm) for at below 10% level (d10), 50% level (d50), and 90% level (d90) of the control and the Biofield Energy Treated samples, respectively.

The % change in surface area (S) was calculated using the following equation 2:

Where SControl and STreated are the surface area of the control and the Biofield Energy Treated CrO3, respectively.

Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis: The PXRD analysis of CrO3 was performed with the help of Rigaku MiniFlex-II Desktop X-ray diffractometer (Japan) [28, 29]. The average size of individual crystallites was calculated using the Scherrer’s formula (3)

Where k is the equipment constant (0.94), G is the crystallite size in nm, λ is the radiation wavelength (0.154056 nm for Kα1 emission), β is the full-width at half maximum (FWHM), and θ is the Bragg angle [30].

The % change in crystallite size (G) of CrO3 was calculated using the following equation 4:

Where GControl and GTreated are the crystallite size of the control and the Biofield Energy Treated samples, respectively.

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC): The DSC analysis of CrO3 was performed with the help of DSC Q200, TA instruments [26, 27]. The % change in melting point (T) was calculated using the following equation 5:

Where TControl and TTreated are the melting point of the control and treated samples, respectively.

The % change in the latent heat of fusion (ΔH) was calculated using the following equation 6:

Where ΔHControl and ΔHTreated are the latent heat of fusion of the control and the Biofield Energy Treated CrO3, respectively.

Results and Discussion

Particle size analysis (PSA)

The PSA analysis data of both the control and the Biofield Energy Treated CrO3 powder are presented in Table 1. The particle size values in the Biofield Energy Treated CrO3 powder was increased at d10, d50, and D(4,3) by 71.13%, 2.09%, and 0.03%, respectively compared to the control sample. However, at d90 the particle size was decreased by 10.86% in the Biofield Energy Treated sample compared to the control sample. The specific surface area (SSA) of the treated CrO3 powder (0.0216 m2/g) was significantly decreased by 63.76% compared with the control sample (0.0596 m2/g). From the results, it can be assumed that the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment might be responsible for reducing internal force for increasing the particle size of CrO3 sample, hence decreased the surface area significantly. Increased in the particle size of the compound may help in enhancing the appearance, shape, and flow ability of the compound [31, 32]. Hence, the Biofield Energy Treated CrO3 might improve the powder flow ability, lower solubility, lower the absorption, and lower toxicity due to inhalation, ingestion, contact to skin and eye, chronic exposure, and aggravation of pre-existing conditions.

Table 1: Particle size distribution of the control and the Biofield Energy Treated CrO3 powder.

d10, d50, and d90: particle diameter corresponding to 10%, 50%, and 90% of the cumulative distribution, D(4,3): the average mass-volume diameter, and SSA: the specific surface area. *denotes the percentage change in the Particle size distribution of the Biofield Energy Treated sample with respect to the control sample.

Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis

The sharp and intense peaks in the PXRD diffractograms of both the control and the Biofield Energy Treated CrO3 powder samples (Figure 1) indicated that both the samples were crystalline. The highest peak intensity of both the samples was found at 2θ equal to 21.2° (Table 2, entry 1). Overall, the peak intensities of the Biofield Energy Treated CrO3 sample were significantly altered ranging from -27.64% to 30.72% compared to the control sample.

Likewise, the average crystallite sizes of the treated CrO3 were significantly altered ranging from -46.14% to 136.44% compared to the control sample. Overall, the average crystallite size of the Biofield Energy Treated CrO3 (675 nm) was significantly increased by 17.65% compared with the control sample (573.75 nm).

Table 2: PXRD data for the control and the Biofield Energy Treated CrO3 powder.

adenotes the percentage change in the peak intensity of the Biofield Energy Treated sample with respect to the control sample; bdenotes the percentage change in the crystallite size of the Biofield Energy Treated sample with respect to the control sample.

From the results, it was found that the crystallite sizes and peak intensities of the Biofield Energy Treated sample were significantly altered compared to the control sample. The peak intensity of any diffraction face on the crystalline compound changes according to the crystal morphology [33] and alterations in the PXRD pattern provide the proof of polymorphic transitions [34, 35]. The Trivedi Effect® probably produced the new polymorphic form of CrO3 via neutrino oscillations [10]. Different polymorphic forms of a compound have significant effects on their physicochemical and thermal properties like melting point, energy, stability, and solubility [36, 37]. Therefore, it can be assumed that the Biofield Energy Treated CrO3 would be more useful for the industry as a raw material for manufacturing.

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis

The thermal analysis of CrO3 powder has been performed to characterize and compare the thermal behavior of the Biofield Energy Treated sample compared to the control sample (Figure 2). The control and the Biofield Energy Treated CrO3 powder showed the sharp endothermic peak at 199.24°C and 201.48°C, respectively (Table 3). The melting point of the Biofield Energy Treated CrO3 powder was slightly increased by 1.12% compared with the control sample (Table 3).

The heat energy required to melt (latent heat of fusion; ∆Hfusion) the Biofield Energy Treated CrO3 powder (95.43 J/g) was significantly increased by 16.02% compared with the control sample (82.25 J/g) (Table 3). The change in the latent heat of fusion can be due to the disrupted molecular chains and the crystal structure [38]. Therefore, it can be presumed that Dahryn’s Biofield Energy Treatment (the Trivedi Effect®) might be responsible for the stronger intermolecular chains and crystal structure of CrO3 which would improve the thermal stability of the treated sample compared with the control sample.

Table 3: DSC data for both control and the Biofield Energy Treated samples of CrO3 powder.

ΔH: Latent heat of fusion, *denotes the percentage change of the Biofield Energy Treated CrO3 powder with respect to the control sample.

Conclusion

The experimental results concluded that the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment have a substantial impact on the particle size, surface area, crystallite, and thermal properties of CrO3. The particle size values of the Consciousness Energy Healing Treated CrO3 were increased by 71.13%, 2.09%, and 0.03% at d10, d50, and D (4, 3), respectively and decreased by 10.86% at d90 compared to the control sample. Hence, the specific surface area of the treated CrO3 was significantly decreased by 63.76% compared with the control sample. The PXRD diffractograms of the control and Consciousness Energy Healing Treated CrO3 showed sharp and intense peaks indicated that both the samples were crystalline. The peak intensities of the treated CrO3 were significantly altered ranging from-27.64% to 30.72% compared with the control sample. Similarly, the crystallite sizes of the Consciousness Energy Healing Treated sample were significantly altered ranging from -46.14% to 136.44% compared to the control sample. Overall, the average crystallite size of the Consciousness Energy Healing Treated CrO3 was significantly increased by 17.65% compared with the control sample. The ∆Hfusion the Consciousness Energy Healing Treated CrO3 was significantly increased by 16.02% compared with the control sample. The experimental results indicated that the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment might have included a new polymorphic form of CrO3 which may be better powder flowability and lower solubility. Thus, it may lower the absorption and toxicity of CrO3 on inhalation, ingestion, contact to skin and eye, chronic exposure, and aggravation of pre-existing conditions. As well the Dahryn’s Consciousness Energy Healing Treated CrO3 would be very useful for the industry manufacturing the synthetic rubies, aerospace parts, stripping agent of anodic coatings, etc.

Acknowledgement

The authors are grateful to Central Leather Research Institute, SIPRA Lab. Ltd., Trivedi Science, Trivedi Global, Inc., Trivedi Testimonials, and Trivedi Master Wellness for their assistance and support during this work.

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