Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Physical and Structural Properties of Bronze Powder

Journal: Advances in Automobile Engineering PDF  

Published: 07-Jul-15 Volume: 4 Issue: 1

DOI: 10.4172/2167-7670.1000119 ISSN: 2167-7670

Authors: Trivedi MK, Nayak G, Patil S, Tallapragada RM, Latiyal O and Jana S*

Citation: Trivedi MK, Nayak G, Patil S, Tallapragada RM, Latiyal O, et al. (2015) Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Physical and Structural Properties of Bronze Powder. Adv Automob Eng 4: 119. doi:10.4172/2167-7670.1000119

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Abstract

Bronze, a copper-tin alloy, widely utilizing in manufacturing of gears, bearing, and packing technologies due to its versatile physical, mechanical, and chemical properties. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment on physical and structural properties of bronze powder. Bronze powder was divided into two samples, one served as control and the other sample was received biofield treatment. Control and treated bronze samples were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. XRD result showed that the unit cell volume was reduced upto 0.78% on day 78 in treated bronze as compared to control. Further, the crystallite size was significantly reduced upto 49.96% in treated bronze sample on day 106 as compared to control. In addition, the biofield treatment has significantly reduced the average particle size upto 18.22% in treated bronze powder as compared to control. SEM data showed agglomerated and welded particles in control bronze powder, whereas fractured morphology at satellites boundaries were observed in treated bronze. The yield strength of bronze powder calculated using Hall- Petch equation, was significantly changed after biofield treatment. The FT-IR analysis showed that there were three new peaks at 464 cm-1, 736 cm-1, and 835 cm-1 observed in treated bronze as compared to control; indicated that the biofield treatment may alter the bond properties in bronze. Therefore, the biofield treatment has substantially altered the characteristics of bronze at physical and structural level.

Conclusion

In summary, the biofield treatment has significantly altered the lattice strain, crystallite size, particle size and surface morphology in bronze powder as compared to control. XRD data revealed that the unit cell volume was reduced upto 0.78% as compared to control. This could be due to compressive stress generated during high energy milling through biofield treatment. Besides this, the reduction in crystallite size upto 49.9% may lead to increase the mechanical strength of the bronze powder after biofield treatment. In addition, biofield treatment has significantly reduced the particle size upto 18.22% in bronze powder as compared to control. SEM data showed fractured surfaces in treated sample whereas welded particles were observed in control sample. Furthermore, the FT-IR analysis data suggest that there were three new peaks at 464 cm-1, 736 cm-1, and 835 cm-1 found in treated bronze as compared to control; indicated that there might be an alteration of bond properties in bronze after biofield treatment. Overall, the biofield treatment has substantially altered the characteristics of bronze at physical and structural level. Thus, it is postulated that the biofield treated bronze powder could be more useful in bearing and gear applications in automobiles.