Journal: Advances in Biochemistry PDF
Published: 9-Mar-17 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Page Number: 7 – 15
DOI: 10.11648/j.ab.20170501.12 ISSN: 2329-0870 (Print) 2329-0862 (Online)
Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Barry Dean Wellborn, Deborah Lea Smith, Dezi Ann Koster, Elizabeth Patric, Jagdish Singh, Kathleen Starr Vagt, Krista Joanne Callas, Parthasarathi Panda, Kalyan Kumar Sethi, Snehasis Jana
Citation: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Barry Dean Wellborn, Deborah Lea Smith, Dezi Ann Koster, Elizabeth Patric, Jagdish Singh, Kathleen Starr Vagt, Krista Joanne Callas, Parthasarathi Panda, Kalyan Kumar Sethi, Snehasis Jana, Effect of the Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®) on the Structural Properties and Isotopic Abundance Ratio of Magnesium Gluconate Using LC-MS and NMR Spectroscopy, Advances in Biochemistry. Vol. 5, No. 1, 2017, pp. 7-15. doi: 10.11648/j.ab.20170501.12
Magnesium gluconate has the wide application for the prevention and treatment of hypomagnesemia. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on magnesium gluconate for the change in the structural properties and isotopic abundance ratio (PM+1/PM) using LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control, and another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The LC-MS analysis of both the control and treated samples revealed the presence of the mass of the protonated magnesium gluconate at m/z 415 at the retention time of 1.53 minutes with almost similar fragmentation pattern. The relative peak intensities of the fragment ions of the treated sample were significantly altered compared with the control sample. The proton and carbon signals for CH, CH2 and CO groups in the proton and carbon NMR spectra were observed almost similar for the control and the treated samples. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis revealed that the percentage of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O or 25Mg/24Mg) was significantly increased in treated sample by 80.38%, compared with the control sample. Briefly, 13C, 2H, 17O, and 25Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 416; 18O and 26Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 417 in the treated sample were significantly increased compared with the control sample. Thus, the treated magnesium gluconate could be valuable for designing better pharmaceutical and/or nutraceutical formulations through its changed physicochemical and thermal properties, which might be providing better therapeutic response against various diseases such as diabetes mellitus, allergy, aging, inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, and other chronic infections. The Trivedi Effect® treated magnesium gluconate might be supportive to design the novel potent enzyme inhibitors using its kinetic isotope effects.
Magnesium Gluconate, The Trivedi Effect®, Biofield Energy Healing Treatment,
Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment, Biofield Energy Healers, LC-MS, NMR,
Isotopic Abundance Ratio, Isotope Effects
Magnesium is a second most abundant mineral in the human body. It is an essential mineral for more than 300 enzymes, DNA and RNA synthesis, reproduction and protein synthesis as well as a vital coherent controller of glycolysis and the Krebs cycle [1-3]. Low level of magnesium i. e. hypomagnesemia may cause several diseases and disorders such as diabetes mellitus, allergies, septic shock, inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, asthma, arrhythmias, acute myocardial infarction, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, eclampsia, Alzheimer's disease, cancer, etc. [4-6]. Magnesium gluconate (C12H22MgO14) is the organometallic salt of magnesium with gluconic acid produced from glucose catalyzed by glucose oxidase . Magnesium gluconate is found to be the most powerful antioxidant than other magnesium salts . Magnesium gluconate exhibits the highest level of bioavailability of magnesium and is more physiologically acceptable salt among the commercially available magnesium salts such as chloride, sulfate, citrate, lactate, aspartate, etc. [9, 10]. Thus, magnesium gluconate has the important application for the prevention and treatment of hypomagnesemia and also oxidative stress induced ischemia/reperfusion injury [8, 9, 11]. It can be used as neuroprotective , an oral tocolytic agent , and also in a skin-tightening cosmetic composition . Subsequently, magnesium gluconate was considered as one of the components in a novel proprietary herbomineral formulation, which is designed as nutraceutical for the source of magnesium ion.
Since ancient times, many different cultures, religions and systems of belief have recognized a living force that preserves and inhabits every living organism. This force is the source of ‘life’ and has been called various names, such as prana by the Hindus, qi or chi by the Chinese, and ki by the Japanese. This is believed to co-relate with the soul, spirit and mind. This hypothetical vital force has been scientifically evaluated and is now considered the Bioenergetics Field. The Biofield Energy is a dynamic electromagnetic field surrounding the human body, resulting from the continuous emission of low-level light, heat, and acoustical energy from the body. Biofield Energy is infinite, para-dimensional and can freely flow between the human and environment . F. Sances et al. reported that Biofield Energy can be transmitted into any living organism(s) or nonliving object(s) around the globe with scientifically measurable effect through the intentional mental energies by specific energy healers . The object or recipient always receives the energy from the ionosphere of the earth, the “universal energy field” and responds in a useful way. This process is known as The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Healing Treatment [17, 18]. Biofield (Putative Energy Field) based Energy Therapies are used worldwide to promote health and healing. The National Center of Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) has recognized and accepted Biofield Energy Healing as a Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) health care approach in addition to other therapies, medicines and practices such as natural products, deep breathing, yoga, Tai Chi, Qi Gong, chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation, meditation, massage, special diets, homeopathy, progressive relaxation, guided imagery, acupressure, acupuncture, relaxation techniques, hypnotherapy, healing touch, movement therapy, pilates, rolfing structural integration, mindfulness, Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese herbs and medicines, naturopathy, essential oils, aromatherapy, Reiki, cranial sacral therapy and applied prayer (as is common in all religions, like Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism and Judaism) . Biofield Energy Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) has been drawn attention more in the recent times for its scientifically measurable capability to transform the characteristic properties of a wide varieties living and non-living substances such as animals , cancer cells , microbes [22, 23], plants [24, 25], medium [26, 27], materials [28, 29], pharmaceuticals [30, 31], nutraceuticals [32, 33], organic compounds [34, 35]. The scientific study indicated that Biofield Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) might be an alternate method for increasing or decreasing the natural isotopic abundance ratio of the substances [36-39]. The stable isotope ratio analysis has the wide applications in several scientific fields for understanding the isotope effects resulting from the variation of the isotopic composition of the molecule [40, 41]. Conventional mass spectrometry (MS) techniques such as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are widely used for isotope ratio analysis with sufficient precision . Hence, LC-MS and NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) methods were applied in this study to characterize the structural properties of the Biofield Energy Treated and untreated magnesium gluconate qualitatively for the purpose of the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industrial applications. Consequently, LC-MS based isotopic abundance ratio (PM+1/PM) analysis in both the Biofield Energy Treated and untreated samples was designed to explore the effect of The Trivedi Effect®- Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the isotopic abundance ratio in magnesium gluconate.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Chemicals and Reagents
Magnesium gluconate hydrate was purchased from Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. (TCI), Japan. All other chemicals used in the experiment were of analytical grade available in India.
2.2. Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment Strategies
Magnesium gluconate was one of the components of the new proprietary herbomineral formulation, which was developed by our research team and was used per se as the test compound for the current study. The test compound was divided into two parts, one part of the test compound did not receive any sort of treatment and was defined as the untreated or control magnesium gluconate sample. The second part of the test compound was denoted as The Trivedi Effect®- Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) treated sample. The treated magnesium gluconate was subjected to The Trivedi Effect® by the group of seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers remotely. All seven Biofield Energy Healers were remotely located in the U. S. A., while the test compound was located in the research laboratory of GVK Biosciences Pvt. Ltd., Hyderabad, India. The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) was provided for 5 minutes through the Healer’s Unique Energy Transmission process remotely to the test compound, which was kept under laboratory conditions. None of the Biofield Energy Healers in this study visited the laboratory in person, nor had any contact with the compounds. Similarly, the control compound was subjected to “sham” healer for 5 minutes, under the same laboratory conditions. The sham healer did not have any knowledge about The Trivedi Effect®- Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment). After that, treated and untreated samples were kept in similar sealed conditions and characterized thoroughly by LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy.
2.3. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) Analysis
Liquid chromatography was performed using The Waters® ACQUITY UPLC, Milford, MA, USA equipped with a binary pump (The Waters® BSM HPLC pump), autosampler, column heater and a photo-diode array (PDA) detector. The column used for the study was a reversed phase Acquity BEH shield RP C18 (150 X 3.0 mm, 2.5 µm). The column temperature was kept constant at 40°C. The mobile phase was 2mM ammonium acetate in water as mobile phase A and acetonitrile as mobile phase B. Chromatographic separation was achieved with following gradient program: 0 min – 5%B; 1 min – 5%B; 15 min - 97%B; 20 min – 97%B; 21 min – 5%B; 25 min – 5%B. The flow rate was at a constant flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The control and treated samples were dissolved in a mixture of water and methanol (60:40 v/v) to prepare a 1 mg/mL stock solution. An aliquot of 2 µL of the stock solution was used for analysis by LC-ESI-MS and the total run time was 25 minutes. Mass spectrometric analysis was accompanied on a Triple Quad (Waters Quattro Premier XE, USA) mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source with the following parameters: electrospray capillary voltage 3.5 kV; source temperature 100°C; desolvation temperature 350°C; cone voltage 30 V; desolvation gas flow 1000 L/h and cone gas flow 60 L/h. Nitrogen was used in the electrospray ionization source. The multiplier voltage was set at 650 V. LC-MS was taken in positive ionization mode and with the full scan (m/z 50-1400). The total ion chromatogram, % peak area and mass spectrum of the individual peak (appeared in LC) were recorded.
2.4. Isotopic Abundance Ratio Analysis
The relative intensity of the peak in the mass spectra is directly proportional to the relative isotopic abundance of the molecule and the isotopic abundance ratio analysis was followed the scientific literature reported [36-39] method described as below:
PM stands for the relative peak intensity of the parent molecular ion [M+] expressed in percentage. In other way, it indicates the probability to A elements having only one natural isotope in appreciable abundance (for e. g. 12C, 1H, 16O, 24Mg, etc.) contributions to the mass of the parent molecular ion [M+].
i.e. the probability to A + 1 elements having an isotope that has one mass unit heavier than the most abundant isotope (for e. g. 13C, 2H, 17O, 25Mg, etc.) contributions to the mass of the isotopic molecular ion [(M+1)+].
Table 1. The isotopic composition (i.e. the natural isotopic abundance) of the elements.
A represents element, n represents the number of the element (i.e. C, H. O, Mg, etc.)
The value of the natural isotopic abundance of the elements used here for the theoretical calculation are achieved from the scientific literature and presented in the Table 1 [43, 44].
Where, IARTreated = isotopic abundance ratio in the treated sample and IARControl = isotopic abundance ratio in the control sample.
2.5. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Analysis
1H NMR spectra were recorded in a 400 MHZ VARIAN FT-NMR spectrometer at room temperature. Data refer to solutions in D2O with the residual solvent protons as internal references.1H NMR multiplicities were designated as singlet (s), doublet (d), triplet (t), multiplet (m), and broad (br).13C NMR spectra were measured at 100 MHz on a VARIAN FT-NMR spectrometer at room temperature. Chemical shifts (δ) were in parts per million (ppm) relative to the solvent’s residual proton chemical shift (D2O, δ = 4.65 ppm) and solvent’s residual carbon chemical shift (D2O, δ = 0 ppm).
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) Analysis
The liquid chromatograms of both the control and The Trivedi Effect® Treated (Biofield Energy Treated) magnesium gluconate as shown in Figure 1 showed a sharp and narrow peak at the retention time (Rt) of 1.53 minutes.
Figure 1. Liquid chromatograms of the control and Biofield Energy Treated magnesium gluconate.
This finding indicated that the polarity/affinity of the treated sample remained same compared with the control sample. The ESI-MS spectra of both the control and treated magnesium gluconate at Rt of 1.53 minutes (Figure 2) exhibited the presence of the mass of magnesium gluconate at m/z 415 [M + H]+ (calcd for C12H23MgO14+, 415).
Figure 2. The ESI-MS spectra of the control and Biofield Energy Treated magnesium gluconate.
The typical fragment ion peaks in the lower m/z region of the protonated magnesium gluconate ion [M]+ (m/z 415) were observed in both the control and treated samples at m/z 402 [M – H2O + 6H]+ (calcd for C12H26MgO134+, 402), 379 [M – 2H2O + H]+ (calcd for C12H19MgO12+, 379), and 361 [M – 3H2O + H]+ (calcd for C12H17MgO11+, 361). By this way removing water along with other groups like alkyl, magnesium gluconate produces different fragment ion peaks at m/z 320, 307, 279, 254, 225, 206, 183, 165, 142, 135, 114, and 100, which were observed in the ESI-MS spectra of the control and Biofield Energy Treated samples (Figure 2) correspond to the following molecular formula C10H16MgO10+, C9H15MgO10+, C9H3MgO9•2+, C9H10MgO72+, C8H9MgO6+, C8H6MgO52+, C6H7MgO5+, C5H9O6+, C5H2O52+, C5H11O4+, C5H6O32+, and C4H4O32+, respectively (Figure 3).
Figure 3. Proposed fragmentation pathway of magnesium gluconate.
The fragment ion peak at m/z 124 corresponding to the molecular formula C4H12O4+ was only found in the control sample. Consequently, the fragment ion peaks at m/z 343, 179, and 123 corresponding to the molecular formula C12H15MgO10+, C6H11O6+, and C4H11O4+, were observed in the ESI-MS spectrum of the Biofield Energy Treated sample. The ESI-MS spectra of the control and treated samples (Figure 2) displayed almost similar type fragmentation pattern. The fragment ion peak at m/z 114 corresponding to C5H6O32+ exhibited 100% relative peak intensity in both ESI-MS spectra of the control and treated sample (Figure 2). The relative peak intensities of the other ion peaks in The Trivedi Effect® treated sample were significantly changed compared with the control sample.
3.2. Isotopic Abundance Ratio Analysis
The molecular formula of magnesium gluconate is C12H22MgO14. The ESI-MS spectra of the control and The Trivedi Effect® Treated showed the mass of a protonated molecular ion at m/z 415 (C12H23MgO14+) showing 12.26% and 9.25% relative intensities, respectively. The theoretical calculation of PM+1 for the protonated magnesium gluconate was presented as below:
PM+1 i. e.13C, 2H, 17O, and 25Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 416 = 3.28%
The calculated isotopic abundance of PM+1 value was near to the observed value (Table 2). Thus, the probability of A + 1 elements having an isotope having one mass unit heavier than the most abundant isotope (e. g. 13C, 2H, 17O, and 25Mg) contributions to the mass of the isotopic molecular ion [M+1]+. Deuterium did not contribute much any isotopic m/z ratios because of less natural abundance relative to the natural abundances of carbon, oxygen and magnesium isotopes [43, 44]. The calculation indicated that 13C and 25Mg have the major contributions from magnesium gluconate to the isotopic peak at m/z 416.
LC-MS spectra of the control and treated samples indicated the presence of the mass for the protonated magnesium gluconate (m/z 415). Hence, PM and PM+1 for magnesium gluconate at m/z 415 and 416 of the control and treated samples were obtained from the observed relative peak intensities of [M+] and [(M+1)+] peaks, respectively in the respective ESI-MS spectra are presented in Table 2.
Table 2. Isotopic abundance analysis results of the magnesium gluconate ion in the control and Biofield Energy Treated sample.
PM = the relative peak intensity of the parent molecular ion [M+]; PM+1 = the relative peak intensity of the isotopic molecular ion [(M+1)+], and M = mass of the parent molecule.
The isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the treated sample was significantly increased by 80.38% compared with the control sample (Table 2). So, 13C, 2H, 17O, and 25Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 416 in the treated sample was significantly increased compared with the control sample.
Scientific literature [37-39, 45] reported that the vibrational energy is closely related with the reduced mass (µ) of the compound and the alteration of the vibrational energy can affect the several properties like physicochemical, thermal properties of the molecule. The relation between the vibrational energy and the reduced mass (µ) for a diatomic molecule is expressed as below [42, 45]:
Where, E0 = the vibrational energy of a harmonic oscillator at absolute zero or zero point energy
f = force constant
Where, ma and mb are the masses of the constituent atoms.
Table 3. Possible isotopic bond and their effect in the vibrational energy in magnesium gluconate molecule.
The alteration in the isotopic abundance ratios of 13C/12C for C-O; 2H/1H for C-H and O-H bonds; 17O/16O for C-O bond; 25Mg/24Mg and 17O/16O for Mg-O bond have the significant impact on the ground state vibrational energy of the molecule due to the higher reduced mass (µ) as shown in the Table 3 that leads to the isotope effects of the molecule.
Mass spectroscopic analysis of the several organic compounds revealed that the isotopic abundance of [M+1]+ and [M+2]+ ions were increased or decreased, thereby suggesting the change in number of neutrons in the molecule. It was then postulated to the alterations in atomic mass and atomic charge through possible mediation of neutrino oscillation [37-39, 46]. Thus, it is assumed that The Trivedi Effect®- Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might offer the required energy for the neutrino oscillations. The changes of neutrinos inside the molecule in turn modified the particle size, chemical reactivity, density, thermal behavior, selectivity, binding energy, etc. . Kinetic isotope effect that is resultant from the variation in the isotopic abundance ratio of one of the atoms in the reactants in a chemical reaction is very useful to study the reaction mechanism as well as for understanding the enzymatic transition state and all aspects of enzyme mechanism that is supportive for designing enormously effective and specific inhibitors [42, 45, 47]. As magnesium is an essential cofactor for various enzymatic reactions, The Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate that had altered isotopic abundance ratio might be advantageous for the study of enzyme mechanism as well as support in the designing of novel potent enzyme inhibitors.
3.3. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Analysis
The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of the control and treated magnesium gluconate are presented in the Figures 4 and 5, respectively. NMR assignments of the control and treated magnesium gluconate are presented in the Table 4. Although magnesium gluconate contains a large number of hydroxyl (OH) groups, the proton spectra of both the control and treated samples did not show any signal for the hydroxyl protons due to the replacement of the hydroxyl protons by deuterium from deuterated water, which was used as solvent for spectra recording.
The signals for the protons coupling of CH2 group and adjacent CH protons (2-5) in the gluconic acid portion were observed in the control and treated samples in the range of δ 3.48 to 4.02 ppm (Table 4), which was almost in accordance with the proton spectrum of sodium gluconate .
br- broad, s- singlet, d-doublet, and dd- doublet of doublet, * These assignments can be switched.
Similarly, the carbon signals for CO group, CH2 and CH groups in the 13C NMR spectrum of the treated sample were almost similar compared with the control sample (Table 4). So, the structure of the magnesium gluconate in the treated samples remained same with the control sample.
Figure 4. The 1H NMR spectra of the control and Biofield Energy Treated magnesium gluconate.
Figure 5. The 13C NMR spectra of the control and Biofield Energy Treated magnesium gluconate.
Table 4. 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic data of both the control and The Trivedi Effect®-Biofield Energy Treated of magnesium gluconate.
The current research work envisaged the structural characterization of magnesium gluconate using LC-MS and NMR techniques and a significant influence of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM. The LC-MS analysis of the both control and treated samples revealed the presence of the mass of the protonated magnesium gluconate at m/z 415 at the retention time of 1.53 minutes with the nearly same type of fragmentation. The relative peak intensities of the fragment ions of The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample were significantly changed compared with the control sample. The isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O or 25Mg/24Mg) was significantly increased in the treated sample by 80.38% compared with the control sample. Briefly, 13C, 2H, 17O, and 25Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 416 in the treated sample was significantly increased compared to the control sample. The Trivedi Effect® treated sample might exhibit isotope effects such as altered physicochemical and thermal properties, rate of the reaction, selectivity and binding energy due to its reduced isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM compared with the control sample. The Trivedi Effect® treated magnesium gluconate might be helpful to understand the enzymatic reactions as well as design the novel potent enzyme inhibitors by using its kinetic isotope effects. Besides, The Trivedi Effect®- Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) could be a useful approach in the design of better nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical formulations that can offer significant therapeutic responses against various diseases such as diabetes mellitus, allergies and septic shock, stress-related disorders like sleep disorder, insomnia, anxiety, depression, Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD), mental restlessness (mind chattering), brain frog, low libido, impotency, lack of motivation, mood swings, fear of the future, confusion, migraines, headaches, forgetfulness, overwhelm, loneliness, worthlessness, indecisiveness, frustration, irritability, chronic fatigue, obsessive/compulsive behavior and panic attacks, inflammatory diseases and immunological disorders like Lupus, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Hashimoto Thyroiditis, Type 1 Diabetes, Asthma, Chronic peptic ulcers, Tuberculosis, Hepatitis, Chronic active hepatitis, Celiac Disease (gluten-sensitive enteropathy), Addison Disease, Crohn's disease, Graves’ Disease, Pernicious and Aplastic Anemia, Sjogren Syndrome, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), Multiple Sclerosis, Rheumatoid arthritis, Chronic periodontitis, Ulcerative colitis, Chronic sinusitis, Myasthenia Gravis, Atherosclerosis, Vasculitis, Dermatitis, Diverticulitis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Reactive Arthritis, Alopecia Areata, Psoriasis, Scleroderma, Fibromyalgia, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Vitiligo, aging-related diseases like cardiovascular disease, arthritis, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, cataracts, osteoporosis, diabetes, hypertension, glaucoma, hearing loss, Parkinson’s Disease, Huntington’s Disease, Prion Disease, Motor Neurone Disease, Spinocerebellar Ataxia, Spinal muscular atrophy, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Friedreich’s Ataxia and Lewy Body Disease; chronic infections and many more.
A: Element; LC-MS: Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; M: Mass of the parent molecule; m/z: Mass-to-charge ratio; n: Number of the element; NMR: Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; PM: The relative peak intensity of the parent molecular ion [M+]; PM+1: The relative peak intensity of isotopic molecular ion [(M+1)+]); Rt: Retention time.
The authors are grateful to GVK Biosciences Pvt. Ltd., Trivedi Science, Trivedi Global, Inc. and Trivedi Master Wellness for their assistance and support during this work.
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