Journal: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine PDF
Published: 09-Nov-15 Volume: 3 Issue: 5 Page Number: 260-267
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajcem.20150305.21 ISSN: 2330-8125 (Print) 2330-8133 (Online)
Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Sambhu Charan Mondal, Snehasis Jana
Citation: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Sambhu Charan Mondal, Snehasis Jana. Biochemical Differentiation and Molecular Characterization of Biofield Treated Vibrio parahaemolyticus. American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Vol. 3, No. 5, 2015, pp. 260-267. doi: 10.11648/j.ajcem.20150305.21
The recent emergence of the Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) is a pandemic. For the safety concern of seafood, consumer monitoring of this organism in seafood is very much essential. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on [ATCC-17802] strain of V. parahaemolyticus for its biochemical characteristics, biotype and 16S rDNA analysis. The lyophilized strain of V. parahaemolyticus was divided into two parts, Group (Gr.) I: control and Gr. II: treated. Gr. II was further subdivided into two parts, Gr. IIA and Gr. IIB. Gr. IIA was analyzed on day 10, whereas, Gr. IIB was stored and analyzed on day 142 (Study I). After retreatment of Gr. IIB on day 142 (Study II), the sample was divided into three separate tubes. The tubes first, second and third were analyzed on day 5, 10, and 15, respectively. The biochemical reaction and biotyping were performed using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The 16S rDNA sequencing was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of V. parahaemolyticus with other bacterial species after the treatment. The results of biochemical reactions were altered 24.24%, out of thirty-three in the treated groups with respect to the control. Moreover, negative (-) reaction of urea was changed to positive (+) in the revived treated Gr. IIB, Study II on day 15 as compared to the control. Besides, biotype number was substantially changed in all the treated groups as compared to the control. However, change in organisms were reported in Gr. IIA on day 10 and in Gr. IIB; Study II on day 5 as Shewanella putrefaciens and Moraxella/Psychrobacter spp., respectively with respect to the control i.e. Vibrio sp. SF. 16S rDNA analysis showed that the identified sample in this experiment was V. parahaemolyticus after biofield treatment, and the nearest homolog genus-species was observed as Vibrio natriegens with 98% gene identity. The results envisaged that the biofield energy treatment showed an alteration in biochemical reaction pattern and biotype number on the strain of V. parahaemolyticus.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Biofield Energy Treatment, Biochemical Reaction, Biotype, 16S rDNA Analysis
Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) is a Gram-negative, human-pathogenic halophilic bacterium. The species is a natural inhabitant of the marine environment as part of estuarian microflora and coastal marine waters. The organism can be present in crabs, shrimps, fish, oysters, mussels and other seafood [1-3]. The infections of V. parahaemolyticus occur due to the ingestion of contaminated raw or undercooked seafood and are an important cause of gastroenteritis in humans [4,5]. The organism has been recognized as the cause of sporadic cases of gastroenteritis in the coastal areas of the world, especially Japan, because they are very much habitual for the consumption of inadequately cooked seafood . The pathogenicity of Vibrio species is due to the massive production of several virulence factors viz. enterotoxin, haemolysin, cytotoxin, protease, lipase, phospholipase, siderophore, adhesive factor and/or haemagglutinins . Several studies have reported that the pathogenicity of V. parahaemolyticus is conferred by the production of two well-defined hemolysin proteins, i.e. thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH) in humans. Although the mechanism of action of these two proteins at the cellular level is not yet well characterized [6, 8]. Based on findings of many studies, it was described that the virulent strain of V. parahaemolyticus carries either the gene tdh or trh, or both and transmit through plasmids or insertion elements . Apart from thermostable haemolysin proteins, a thermolabile haemolysin (TLH) encoded with the tlh gene is considered as a species-specific marker in the strains of V. parahaemolyticus . Based on the biochemical studies, it was reported that the tdh gene, marked by a β-type haemolysis , was correlated to a urease positive test , and served as the marker for pathogenic strains of Vibrio species.
As V. parahaemolyticus is an important foodborne pathogen. To reduce the risk of V. parahaemolyticus infection and to ensure the safety aspect of seafood, an alternative strategy can be used. Biofield energy treatment has been known as an alternative approach that may be useful in that concern. Based on the bioplasma concept of consciousness in any living organism, the habitats of bioplasma are protein semiconductors, piezoelectric or organic compounds such as melanin, neuromelanin, melatonin, DNA, RNA, etc. . Changing the information disclosed in the electrical profile in living organism and changed the biofield plasma. Bioplasma is the result of the biofield . The electrical current present within the human body in the form of vibratory energy particles and they produce a magnetic field commonly known as biofield [15, 16]. Biofield (putative energy fields) or electromagnetic based energy therapies, used to promote health and healing that had been exclusively reported by National Institute of Health/National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NIH/NCCAM) . Human has surround the putative energy barrier is known as biofield energy and the process is known as biofield energy treatment. Mr. Trivedi’s unique biofield treatment (The Trivedi effect®) has been extensively contributes in scientific communities in several fields [18-21].
Based on the clinical importance of this organism in the field of seafood industry, the work was undertaken to assess the effect of biofield energy treatment on V. parahaemolyticus in relation to biochemical characteristics and biotyping followed by 16S rDNA sequencing.
2. Materials and Methods
The strain of V. parahaemolyticus was bearing American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) number 17802, was obtained from MicroBioLogics, Inc., USA. Biochemicals used in this study were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich, MA, USA. The MicroScan Walk-Away® (Dade Behring Inc., West Sacramento, CA, USA) with Negative Breakpoint Combo 30 (NBPC 30) panel was used for analysis of biochemical reactions and biotype number. The 16S rDNA sequencing analysis was performed using Ultrapure Genomic DNA Prep Kit; Cat KT 83 (Bangalore Genei, India).
2.1. Experimental Design
For the assessment of the effects of biofield energy treatment on V. parahaemolyticus the study was designed as follows -
Group I: ATCC strain in the lyophilized state was considered as control. No treatment was given to it and analyzed for biochemical reactions and biotype number as per the standard protocol.
Group II: The lyophilized state of ATCC strain was divided into two parts named as Gr. IIA and Gr. IIB. Both the groups of ATCC strain of V. parahaemolyticus in the lyophilized state were assigned to Mr. Trivedi’s unique biofield treatment (first treatment). Gr. IIA was analyzed on day 10 while Gr. IIB sample was stored in the lyophilized state for 142 days at -70ºC. Gr. IIB was further sub-divided in two separate parts named as Gr. IIB - Study I and Gr. IIB - Study II.
Group IIB - Study I
After 142 days, biochemical reactions pattern and biotyping were performed as per the standard protocol.
Group IIB - Study II
The stored strain was revived from -70ºC and the revived culture was again provided to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment (re-treatment) on day 142. After biofield retreatment, the sample was sub-cultured into three separate tubes and each sample on was analyzed on day 5, 10, and 15.
2.2. Biofield Treatment Strategy
The lyophilized (Gr. IIA) sample of V. parahaemolyticus was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment followed by retreatment after storing for 142 days in revived state (Gr. IIB, Study II). The samples assigned to treatment were received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment through his unique way of energy transmission process from the short distance without touch the test item. Treated samples were assessed for biochemical reactions and biotyping as per experimental design. While handing over these cultures to Mr. Trivedi for retreatment purposes, optimum precautions were taken to avoid contamination.
2.3. Study of Biochemical Reactions
Biochemical reactions of V. parahaemolyticus were determined using MicroScan Walk-Away®, system with NBPC 30 panel. The system contains a photometric or fluorogenic reader. On the basis of nature of bacilli (i.e. Gram-negative), computerized reports were generated using the conventional panel, which utilizes the photometric reader. The panel was allowed to equilibrate to room temperature before rehydration. All opened panels were used on the day. The tests were carried out with miniaturized of the broth dilution that has been dehydrated. Concisely, 0.1 mL of the standardized suspension of V. parahaemolyticus cultured cells were taken into 25 mL of inoculum water using pluronic and inverted 8 to 10 times and inoculated, rehydrated, and then subjected to incubation for 16 hours at 35°C. After that, rehydration and followed by inoculation were performed using the RENOK® system with inoculators-D (B1013-4). Approximately 25 mL of standardized inoculum suspension was poured into the inoculum tray. Before commencing the experiment, the NBPC 30 panel was first incubated and read on the system. After evaluating the experimental reading on the system, the NBPC 30 panel was removed from the system and recorded on the Biomic system within 1 hour. The instrument consists of a database associated with collective information, which was required to identify the microbes with respect to group, genera, or species of the family. The detailed experimental procedure was followed as per manufacturer-recommended instructions .
2.4. Biotyping for Identification of Organism
The biotype number of V. parahaemolyticus was determined on MicroScan Walk-Away® processed panel data report with the help of biochemical reactions data. The similar experimental procedure was followed for identification of biotype number as described in biochemical reaction study, and as per manufacturer-recommended instructions .
2.5. Amplification and Gene Sequencing of 16S rDNA
DNA was made from V. parahaemolyticus cells (Gr. IIA, sample coded as 1A) using genomic DNA purification kit (Cat KT 83, Bangalore Genei, India), as per manufacturer information. The DNA was resuspended in tris-ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (TE), (10 mM Tris-HCl, 100 mM EDTA, pH 7.8) buffer and stored at −20°C. The quantity of genomic DNA was then measured at 260 nm with the help of a spectrophotometer. The concentration of DNA was adjusted approximately to 25 ng/µL using distilled deionized water for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). 16S rDNA gene (~1.5 kb) fragment was amplified with the help of high-fidelity PCR using universal primers; forward-5ˊ-AGAGTTTGATCCTGGCTCAG-3ˊ and reverse-3ˊ-ACGGTCATACCTTGTTACGACTT-5ˊ. The PCR assay was done at 94°C for 5 min followed by cycles of 94°C for 1 min, 63°C for 1 min and 72°C for 2 min in a DNA thermal cycler . The PCR fragments of amplified DNA were subjected to gel electrophoresis on a 1.0% agarose gel, stained with ethidium bromide and visualized under UV light in a gel doc apparatus (BioRad, USA). The PCR amplified fragment was then purified from the agarose gel using DNA gel extraction kit. Sequencing of amplified product was performed on a commercial basis from Bangalore Genei, India. The obtained 16S rDNA sequences were aligned and compared with the stored sequences in GenBank database available from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) with the help of algorithm BLASTn program. Based on the multiple sequence of alignment a phylogenetic tree was established using MEGA3.1 molecular software .
3.1. Study of Biochemical Reactions
The biochemical reactions data of biofield treated V. parahaemolyticus obtained from MicroScan Walk-Away® system are presented in Table 1. Identification of the enzymatic and metabolic behaviors of microbes can be obtained through a series of biochemical reactions. The microbes can be categorically differentiated based on the utilization of specific biochemicals as nutrients during the process of enzymatic or metabolic reactions. The conventional biochemical tests are necessary for the differentiation of V. parahaemolyticus. The biochemical reactions study of V. parahaemolyticus was performed using thirty-three biochemicals. The negative (-) reactions of arabinose (ARA), inositol (INO), and raffinose (RAF) in control sample were changed to positive (+) reactions in revived treated group (Gr. IIB; Study II) on day 10, while unchanged i.e. negative (-) in rest of the treated groups. In similarly way, the negative (-) reactions of untreated V. parahaemolyticus in glucose (GLU), penicillin (P4), and urea (URE) in control sample were converted into positive (+) reactions in revived treated group (Gr. IIB; Study II) on day 15, after retreatment on day 142, while unchanged i.e. negative (-) reactions in rest of the treated groups. The biochemical data of indole (IND) was changed from positive (+) to negative (-) reaction in all the biofield treated groups, except in Gr. IIB; Study II on day 10 after retreatment on day 142, with respect to the control (Gr. I). Moreover, the biochemical reaction pattern of nitrate (NIT) showed positive (+) reaction in the lyophilized treated group (Gr. IIA) on day 10, while again converted into negative (-) in rest of the treated groups as compared to the control (Table 1). Overall, eight out of thirty-three i.e. 24.24% biochemical reactions were changed in biofield energy treated V. parahaemolyticus sample as compared to the untreated strain. The rest of the biochemicals did not report any type of alteration in treated group at any time-point with respect to the control group (Table 1).
Table 1. Biochemical and morphological characterization of biofield treated Vibrio parahaemolyticus (ATCC 17802).
-, (negative); +, (positive); Gr.: Group
3.2. Biotyping for Identification of Organism
Based on the utilization of specific nutrients (i.e. biochemicals) for catabolic or anabolic activities, V. parahaemolyticus showed different types of reactions. Biotyping was obtained based on the interpretation of biochemical reaction pattern of biofield energy treated V. parahaemolyticus on specific biochemicals. Then, the biotype number can be used for the identification of the specific organism. In this experiment, biotyping was performed using automated systems, and the processed panel data are shown in Table 2.
Table 2. Effect of biofield treatment on biotype number of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.
The biotype number of biofield treated V. parahaemolyticus was changed in all the treated groups as compared to the control. The biotype numbers with new organisms were observed in Gr. IIA, on day 10 (0000 0006 → Shewanella putrefaciens) and in Gr. IIB; Study II, on day 5 (0000 0002 → Moraxella/Psychrobacter spp.) with respect to the control (1000 0002 → Vibrio sp. SF). The rest of the treated groups of V. parahaemolyticus did not exhibit any change, either genus or species as compared to the control (Table 2).
3.3. 16S rDNA Genotyping
The microorganisms that are poorly differentiated by conventional methods and to contribute better characterization, need molecular analysis method such as 16S rDNA sequence . Thus, the molecular method was used in this experiment that may be useful in the monitoring of ATCC strain of V. parahaemolyticus. This molecular-based technique is a suitable tool for identification of most of the bacteria on their genus and/or species level by comparison with databases in the public domain. As because of, most of the bacteria have small ribosomal subunit with their species-specific variability . The 16S rDNA sequence was determined in V. parahaemolyticus on Gr. IIA sample. The alignment and comparison of the gene sequences were performed with the help of stored sequences in GenBank database available from NCBI using the algorithm BLASTn program. Based on nucleotide homology and phylogenetic analysis the microbe (Sample 1A) was detected as V. parahaemolyticus (GenBank Accession Number: BA000032). The nearest homolog genus-species of V. parahaemolyticus was found as Vibrio natriegens (Accession No. AJ874352) with 98% similarity. Some other closely homologs of V. parahaemolyticus were to be found from the alignment as shown in Table 3. The distance matrix based on nucleotide sequence homology data are presented in Table 4. The phylogenetic tree was established using BLAST-Webpage (NCBI). According to Fig. 1, ten different related bacterial species of V. parahaemolyticus were selected as Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) to establish the phylogenetic relationship of V. parahaemolyticus. About 1511 base nucleotides of 16S rDNA gene sequences analyzed, and multiple alignments were constructed using ClustalW in MEGA3.1. The numbers of each base substitutions per site from pairwise distance analysis between sequences are illustrate in Table 3. All results were based on the pairwise analysis of 11 sequences. According to the data in Table 4, the lowest value of genetic distance from P. vulgaris was 0.005 base substitutions per site. This value is due to the distance between V. parahaemolyticus and Vibrio natriegens. P-distance method was used to correlate the pairwise distance analysis using MEGA3.1 software. The value presented in the Table 3 are programmed into Fig. 1 with the help of optimal bootstrap consensus tree. In the phylogram, there were eleven OTUs. The results suggested that Vibrio haemolyticus was found to be closely related to the Vibrio natriegens with genetic distance 0.005 base substitutions per site (Fig. 1).
Figure 1. Phylogenetic tree of the partial 16S rDNA gene sequencing of Vibrio parahaemolyticus using MEGA 3.1 software using neighbor joining method. Numbers represent GenBank accession number.
Table 3. The closest sequences of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from sequence alignment using NCBI GenBank and ribosomal database project (RDP).
AN: GenBank Accession Number
Table 4. Distance matrix of Vibrio parahaemolyticus sample based on nucleotide sequence homology (using kimura-2 parameter).
AN: GenBank Accession Number
Identification of Vibrios species on the basis of biochemical reactions are pose difficult due to their atypical type of reactions pattern . Ben Kahla-Nakbi et al. in 2007 reported that most of the Vibrios species are indole (IND) negative. Although in this experiment, the biochemical data of IND showed positive (+) which was corroborated with another literature mentioned that the production of IND is variable. Apart from few biochemicals most of the biochemical reactions were well matched with the literature data . Based on several reports that not all the coastal strains are pathogenic to humans due to the production of various haemolysin proteins, only 1-2% strains are TDH positive [28,29]. The negative (-) reaction of urea (URE) in the control strain of V. parahaemolyticus was corroborated with literature, while some researchers were reported that the positive reaction of URE biochemical reaction directly correlated with the specific gene tdh innervated with the TDH protein molecule [7,11-12]. If we look the biochemical reaction of URE it was positive (+) after long-term assessment point after second-time biofield treatment on day 15 as compared to the control. Consequently, it is assumed that the positive biochemical reaction of URE may be due to the act on the genetic level after biofield energy treatment on V. parahaemolyticus. Moreover, the positive reaction of galactosidases (ONPG) indicated the identifiable characteristics feature of V. parahaemolyticus rather than sugar fermentation process i.e. sucrose . Identification of V. parahaemolyticus with the help of PCR-based 16S rDNA technique is more efficient, reliable and faster in comparison with the conventional biochemical reaction pattern analysis . Based on literature toxR gene is specific for identification of V. parahaemolyticus genome profile. However, it does not produce any virulence property but it regulates the expression of virulence factor genes . Here, based on nucleotides homology and phylogenetic analysis the microbe (Sample: 1A) was detected as Vibrio parahaemolyticus (GenBank Accession Number: BA000032) and the nearest homolog species was found to be Vibrio natriegens (Accession No. AJ874352) with 97% similarity. Some researcher had found the nearest homologous species of the toxR gene was V. cholerae with 52% identity .
Based on the phenotypic and genotypic differences the strains can be identified. The process of differentiating is known as 'typing'. The same species that have very small differences between them can be differentiated by additional methods so called biotyping. These species are then subdivided based on their special characteristic features, percent probability, and rare typing into subspecies, subgroups, serotypes, variants, etc. Most of the seafood from the coastal region of Southeast Asia have a high risk for the presence of V. parahaemolyticus approximately 20 - 70% [32, 33]. The hot and salty marine water is the good contributor for the growth and burden of V. parahaemolyticus. Biofield treatment could be responsible for the change in biochemical reaction followed by biotyping due to the alteration of enzymes activities or genetic make-up, which may act on particular receptor domain. The manifestation of different phenotypic characteristics may be due to the alteration of receptor-ligand conformation or their signaling cascade .
Even though, V. parahaemolyticus is widely abundant in the environment of the coastal region seafood all over the world. The peoples those who are depending on seafood have to take precaution that this seafood should cook properly. Although, the most of the microbes did not show their pathogenicity to humans. Based on the findings of a biochemical reaction, biotyping followed by molecular analysis, it was observed that there was an impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment on the ATCC strain of V. parahaemolyticus. So far our group had been documented several scientific evidences regarding effects of biofield treatment on ATCC strain . Based on these results, it is expected that biofield treatment has the scope to be an alternative approach than the existing antimicrobial therapy in near future.
Based on study outcome, the biofield energy treated V. parahaemolyticus showed 24.24% alteration in biochemical reaction pattern with respect to the control. Moreover, the biotype number of V. parahaemolyticus was changed in all the treated groups analyzed at different time-points as compared with the control. Apart from biotype number, the new organisms were observed as Shewanella putrefaciens and Moraxella/Psychrobacter spp., in the treated Gr. IIA, on day 10 and in Gr. IIB; Study II, on day 5, respectively as compared to the control i.e. Vibrio sp. SF. Molecular technique based on 16S rDNA analysis showed that the treated sample in this experiment was detected as V. parahaemolyticus. While, the nearest homolog genus-species was reported as Vibrio natriegens with 98% similarity. Based on these results, it seems that Mr. Trivedi’s unique biofield treatment could be utilized as an alternate therapeutic window concurrent with other existing drug therapy in the field of seafood industry in the near future.
ATCC: American Type Culture Collection; NBPC 30: Negative Breakpoint Combo 30; MIC: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration; OTUs: Operational Taxonomic Units; NCBI: National Center for Biotechnology Information; MEGA: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis
Financial assistance from Trivedi science, Trivedi testimonials and Trivedi master wellness is gratefully acknowledged. We also are grateful to the whole team from PD Hinduja National Hospital and MRC, Mumbai, Microbiology Lab for their support.
 Pereira CS, Viana CM, Rodrigues DP (2004) Vibrio parahaemolyticus urease positive isolated from in natura oysters (Crassostrea rizophorae) collected at restaurants and mussels (Perna perna) harvested from natural habitat. Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos 24: 591-595.
 Su YC, Liu C (2007) Vibrio parahaemolyticus: A concern of seafood safety. Food Microbiol 24: 549-558.
 DePaola A, Nordstrom JL, Bowers JC, Wells JG, Cook DW (2003) Seasonal abundance of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Alabama oysters. Appl Environ Microbiol 69: 1521-1526.
 Daniels NA, Ray B, Easton A, Marano N, Kahn E, et al. (2000) Emergence of a new Vibrio parahaemolyticus serotype in raw oysters: A prevention quandary. JAMA 284: 1541-1545.
 Zulkifli Y, Alitheen NB, Son R, Yeap SK, Lesley MB, et al. (2009) Identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates by PCR targeted to the toxR gene and detection of virulence genes. Int Food Res J 16: 289-296.
 Qadri F, Chowdhury NR, Takeda Y, Nair GB (2005) Oceans and health: Pathogens in the marine environment. Springer Science, Business Media, Inc. New York.
 Khouadja S, Lamari F, Bakhrouf A (2013) Characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) during disease outbreaks. Int Aquac Res 5: 13.
 Rojas MV, Matte MH, Dropa M, Silva ML, Matte GR (2011) Characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from oysters and mussels in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 53: 201-205.
 Lee C, Pan SF (1993) Rapid and specific detection of the thermostable direct haemolysin gene in Vibrio parahaemolyticus by the polymerase chain reaction. J Gen Microbiol 139: 3225-3231.
 Bej AK, Patterson DP, Brasher CW, Vickery MCL, Jones DD, et al. (1999) Detection of total and hemolysin-producing Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shellfish using multiplex PCR amplification of tlh, tdh and trh. J Microbiol Methods 36: 215-225.
 Nishibuchi M, Kaper JB (1995) Thermostable direct hemolysin gene of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: A virulence gene acquired by a marine bacterium. Infect Immun 63: 2093-2099.
 Okuda J, Ishibashi M, Abbott SL, Janda JM, Nishibuchi M (1997) Analysis of the thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) gene and the tdh-related hemolysin (trh) genes in urease-positive strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated on the west coast of the United States. J Clin Microbiol 35: 1965-1971.
 Mc Ginnes JE, Corry P, Proctor P (1974) Amorphous semiconductor switching in melanins. Science 183: 853-855.
 Adamski AG (2011) Bioplasma concept of consciousness. NeuroQuantology 9: 681-691.
 Planck M (1903) Treatise on thermodynamics. (3rdedn), English translated by Alexander OGG, Longmans, Green, London (UK).
 Einstein A (1905) Does the inertia of a body depend upon its energy-content? Ann Phys 18: 639-641.
 Koithan M (2009) Introducing complementary and alternative therapies. J Nurse Pract 5: 18-20.
 Trivedi MK, Nayak G, Patil S, Tallapragada RM, Latiyal O (2015) Studies of the atomic and crystalline characteristics of ceramic oxide nano powders after bio field treatment. Ind Eng Manage 4: 161.
 Trivedi MK, Patil S, Shettigar H, Bairwa K, Jana S (2015) Phenotypic and biotypic characterization of Klebsiella oxytoca: An impact of biofield treatment. J Microb Biochem Technol 7: 203-206.
 Patil SA, Nayak GB, Barve SS, Tembe RP, Khan RR (2012) Impact of biofield treatment on growth and anatomical characteristics of Pogostemon cablin (Benth.). Biotechnology 11: 154-162.
 Nayak G, Altekar N (2015) Effect of biofield treatment on plant growth and adaptation. J Environ Health Sci 1: 1-9.
 Fader RC, Weaver E, Fossett R, Toyras M, Vanderlaan J, et al. (2013) Multilaboratory study of the biomic automated well-reading instrument versus MicroScan WalkAway for reading MicroScan antimicrobial susceptibility and identification panels. J Clin Microbiol 51: 1548-1554.
 Kim YB, Okuda J, Matsumoto C, Takahashi N, Hashimoto S, et al. (1999) Identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains at the species level by PCR targeted to the toxR gene. J Clin Microbiol 37: 1173-1177.
 Kumar S, Tamura K, Nei M (2004) MEGA3: Integrated software for molecular evolutionary genetics analysis and sequence alignment. Brief Bioinform 5: 150-163.
 Drancourt M, Bollet C, Carlioz A, Martelin R, Gayral JP, et al. (2000) 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis of a large collection of environmental and clinical unidentifiable bacterial isolates. J Clin Microbiol 38: 3623-3630.
 Vandamme P, Pot B, Gillis M, De Vos P, Kersters K, et al. (1996) Polyphasic taxonomy, a consensus approach to bacterial systematics. Microbiol Rev 60: 407-438.
 Karunasagar I, Sugumar G, Karunasagar I, Reilly PJA (1996) Rapid polymerase chain reaction method for detection of kanagawa positive Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafoods. Int J Food Microbiol 31: 317-323.
 Hervio-Heath D, Colwell RR, Derrien A, Robert-Pillot A, Fournier JM, et al. (2002) Occurrence of pathogenic Vibrios in coastal areas of France. J Appl Microbiol 92: 1123-1135.
 Robert-Pillot A, Guenole A, Lesne J, Delesmont R, Fournier JM, et al. (2004) Occurrence of the tdh and trh genes in Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from waters and raw shellfish collected in two French coastal areas and from seafood imported into France. Int J Food Microbiol 91: 319-325.
 Hara-Kudo Y, Sugiyama K, Nishibuchi M, Chowdhury A, Jun Yatsuyanagi J, et al. (2003) Prevalence of pandemic thermostable direct haemolysin-producing Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 in seafood and the coastal environment in Japan. Appl Environ Microbiol 69: 3883-3891.
 Sechi LA, Dupre I, Deriu A, Fadda G, Zanetti S (2000) Distribution of Vibrio cholerae virulence genes among different Vibrio species isolated in Sardinia, Italy. J Appl Microbiol 88: 475-481.
 Wong HC, Chen MC, Liu SH, Liu DP (1999) Incidence of highly genetically diversified Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood imported from Asian countries. Int J Food Microbiol 52: 181-188.
 Ronald GL, Santos G (2001) Guide to foodborne pathogens. (2ndedn), New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
 Lindstrom E, Mild KH, Lundgren E (1998) Analysis of the T cell activation signaling pathway during ELF magnetic field exposure, p56lck and [Ca2+]i-measurements. Bioeletrochem Bioenerg 46: 129-137.