An Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Thermal, Physical and Structural Properties of Cadmium Powder

Journal: Thermodynamics & Catalysis PDF  

Published: 04-Aug-15 Volume: 6 Issue: 2

DOI: 10.4172/2157-7544.1000147 ISSN: 2157-7544

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Gopal Nayak , Shrikant Patil , Rama Mohan Tallapragada , Omprakash Latiyal , and Snehasis Jana

Citation: Trivedi MK, Nayak G, Patil S, Tallapragada RM, Latiyal O et al.(2015) An Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Thermal, Physical and Structural Properties of Cadmium Powder. J Thermodyn Catal 6: 147. doi:10.4172/2157-7544.1000147

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Abstract

Cadmium is widely utilized in nickel-cadmium batteries, stabilizers, and coating applications due to its versatile physico-chemical properties. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on atomic, thermal, and physical properties of cadmium powder. The cadmium powder was divided into two groups, one group as control and another group as treated. The treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), particle size analyzer, surface area analyzer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD results showed significant alteration in lattice parameter, unit cell volume, densities, nuclear charge per unit volume, and atomic weight in treated cadmium powder as compared to control. Furthermore, crystallite size was significantly reduced upto 66.69% in treated cadmium as compared to control. DSC analysis results showed that the latent heat of fusion of the treated cadmium powder was considerably reduced by 16.45% as compared to control. Particle size data revealed that average particle size (d50) of treated cadmium powder was significantly reduced by 47.79 % as compared to the control. In addition, the surface area of treated cadmium powder was substantially enhanced by 156.36% as compared to control. Surface morphology observed by SEM showed the more facets and fractured surface with satellite boundaries in treated cadmium powder as compared to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the atomic, thermal and physical properties of cadmium.

Conclusion

In summary, XRD results showed that crystallite size was decreased by 66.69% in treated cadmium as compared to control that might be due to subgrain formation inside the crystallites through high internal strain. Thermal analysis data revealed that the latent heat of fusion was reduced by 16.45% in treated cadmium as compared to control. It is hypothesized that energy might be transferred through biofield treatment to cadmium atoms and stored in metal as potential energy. Thus, higher potential energy in treated cadmium led to reduced latent heat of fusion. Besides, average particle size was significantly reduced in treated cadmium by 47.7%, as compared to control, which resulted into increase surface area upto 156.36 % after biofield treatment. Moreover, the cadmium with smaller particle size, and high surface area in electrode could improve the kinetics of electrochemical reactions. Therefore it is assumed that biofield treated cadmium could be more useful in nickel-cadmium batteries in electrochemical industries.